/PROP/TYPE9 (SH_ORTH)
Block Format Keyword This property set is used to define the orthotropic shell property.
Format
(1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10) 

/PROP/TYPE9/prop_ID/unit_ID or /PROP/SH_ORTH/prop_ID/unit_ID  
prop_title  
I_{shell}  I_{smstr}  I_{sh3n}  I_{dril}  P_thick_{fail}  
h_{m}  h_{f}  h_{r}  d_{m}  d_{n}  
N  Thick  A_{shear}  skew_ID  I_{thick}  I_{plas}  
V_{X}  V_{Y}  V_{Z}  $\varphi $  I_{P} 
Definition
Field  Contents  SI Unit Example 

prop_ID  Property
identifier. (Integer, maximum 10 digits) 

unit_ID  Unit Identifier. (Integer, maximum 10 digits) 

prop_title  Property
title. (Character, maximum 100 characters) 

I_{shell}  Shell element formulation
flag. 1
(Integer) 

I_{smstr}  Shell small strain
formulation flag. 2
(Integer) 

I_{sh3n}  3 node shell element
formulation flag.
(Integer) 

I_{dril}  Drilling degree of freedom
stiffness flag. 7
(Integer) 

P_thick_{fail}  Percentage of through thickness integration points that must fail
before the element is deleted. 9
10 $0.0\le P\_thic{k}_{fail}\le 1.0$ (Real) 

h_{m}  Shell membrane hourglass
coefficient. 3 Default = 0.01 Default = 0.1 for hourglass type 3 (I_{shell} =3) (Real) 

h_{f}  Shell outofplane
hourglass. 3 Default = 0.01 Default = 0.1 for hourglass type 3 (I_{shell} =3) (Real) 

h_{r}  Shell rotation hourglass
coefficient. 3 Default = 0.01 Default = 0.1 for hourglass type 3 (I_{shell} =3) (Real) 

d_{m}  Shell Membrane Damping It is only active for Material Laws 19, 25, 32 and 36. Default: see Comment 4 (Real) 

d_{n}  Shell numerical damping.
4 It only used for I_{shell} =12 and 24. Default =0.015 for I_{shell} =24 (QEPH) Default =0.001 for I_{shell} =12 (QBAT) Default =0.0001 for I_{sh3n} =30 (DKT18) (Real) 

N  Number of integration
points through the thickness 1 < N <
10. Default set to 1 (Integer) 

Thick  Shell
thickness. (Real) 
$\left[\text{m}\right]$ 
A_{shear}  Shear factor. Default is Reissner value: 5/6 (Real) 

skew_ID  Skew identifier for
reference vector. 8 Default = 0 (Integer) 

I_{thick}  Shell resultant stresses
calculation flag.
(Integer) 

I_{plas}  Shell plane stress
plasticity flag. 6 It is available for Material Laws 2, 22, 32,
36 and 43.
(Integer) 

V_{X}  X component. 8 Default = 1.0 (Real) 

V_{Y}  Y component. 8 Default = 0.0 (Real) 

V_{Z}  Z component. 8 Default = 0.0 (Real) 

$\varphi $  Angle. 8 Default = 0.0 (Real) 
$\left[\mathrm{deg}\right]$ 
I_{P}  Reference direction in
shell plane. 8
(Integer) 
Example (Shell)
#RADIOSS STARTER
#12345678910
# 1. LOCAL_UNIT_SYSTEM:
#12345678910
/UNIT/2
unit for prop
# MUNIT LUNIT TUNIT
kg mm ms
#12345678910
# 2. GEOMETRICAL SETS:
#12345678910
/PROP/SH_ORTH/2/2
SH_ORTH example
# Ishell Ismstr Ish3n Idrill Pthick_fail
12 0 0 1 0
# hm hf hr dm dn
0 0 0 .1 .1
# N Thick Ashear skew_ID Ithick Iplas
3 1.8 0 0 1 1
# Vx Vy Vz Phi Ip
1 0 1 45 0
#12345678910
#enddata
#12345678910
Comments
 I_{shell}. I_{sh3n} – 4node and 3node shell
formulation flag
 I_{shell} =1,2,3,4 (Q4): original 4 node Radioss shell with hourglass perturbation stabilization.
 I_{shell} =24 (QEPH): formulation with hourglass physical stabilization for general use.
 I_{shell} =12 (QBAT): modified BATOZ Q4γ24 shell with four Gauss integration points and reduced integration for inplane shear. No hourglass control is needed for this shell.
 I_{sh3n} =30 (DKT18): BATOZ DKT18 thin shell with three Hammer integration points.
 Flag I_{shell} =2 is incompatible with one integration point for shell element.
 I_{sh3n}  Small strain
formulation
 Small strain formulation is activated from time t= 0, if I_{smstr} = 1, 3 or 11. It may be used for a faster preliminary analysis, but the accuracy of results is not ensured. Any shell for which $\Delta \text{t<}\Delta {\text{t}}_{\text{min}}$ can be switched to a small strain formulation by Radioss Engine option /DT/SHELL/CST, except if I_{smstr} = 4 or 11.
 If I_{smstr} =1, 3 or 11, the strains and stresses which are given in material laws are engineering strains and stresses; otherwise, they are true strains and stresses.
 I_{smstr} =11 has been developed to improve the robustness for Airbag models; actually, it is only compatible with Law 19 and with all quadrilateral shells and standard C0 tria. For Q4 shell using reference state coordinates, when I_{smstr} = 1, it will be set automatically to I_{smstr} = 11.
 h_{m}, h_{f}, and h_{r}  Hourglass coefficients
 h_{m}, h_{f}, and h_{r} are only used for Q4 shells (I_{shell}=1,2,3,4). They must have a value between 0 and 0.05.
 For I_{shell}=3, default values of h_{m} and h_{r} are 0.1 with larger values possible.
 d_{m} and
d_{n}  Shell membrane damping
and numerical damping coefficient
 Default d_{m}
LAW19 LAW25 LAW32 LAW36 I_{shell} =1,2,3,4 (Q4) 0.25 0.05 0.0 0.0 I_{shell} =12 0.25 0.05 0.0 0.0 I_{shell} =24 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015  d_{n} is only used for I_{shell} =12 and 24 and
I_{sh3n}=30:
 for I_{shell} = 24, d_{n} is used for hourglass stress calculation
 for I_{shell} = =12 (QBAT) d_{n} is used for all stress terms, except transvers shear
 for I_{sh3n}=30 (DKT18) d_{n} is only used for membrane
 Default d_{m}
 I_{thick}  Shell resultant
stresses calculation flag
 Flag I_{thick} is automatically set to 1 for /MAT/LAW32 (HILL).
 If I_{thick}=1, the small strain option is automatically deactivated in the corresponding type of element.
 I_{plas}  Shell plane stress
plasticity flag
 It is recommended to use I_{plas} = 1, if I_{thick} = 1.
 If I_{plas} =1, the small strain option is automatically deactivated in the corresponding type of element.
 I_{dril}  Drilling degree of
freedom stiffness flag
 Drilling DOF stiffness is recommended for implicit solutions especially for Riks method and bending dominated problems.
 I_{dril} is available for QEPH, QBAT (I_{shell} = 12 and 24), and standard triangle (C0) shell elements (I_{sh3n} = 1 and 2).
 Anisotropy direction
definition.The reference vector $V$ is defined as following according flag I_{P}:
 If I_{P}=0 and skew_ID = 0, the reference vector $V$ is defined with VX, VY and VZ.
 If I_{P}=0 and skew_ID ≠ 0, the reference vector $V$ is the first direction (local X) of the local coordinate system skew_ID.
 If I_{P} = 20, the reference vector $V$ is defined with the node N1 and N2 of the shell elements.
 If I_{P} = 22, the reference vector $V$ is the first direction (local X) of the local coordinate system skew_ID. Vector components VX, VY and VZ are ignored.
 If I_{P} = 23, the reference vector $V$ is defined with VX, VY and VZ. Local coordinate system skew_ID is ignored.
 If I_{P} = 24 and skew_ID = 0, the 1^{st} material direction (m1) is defined with the node N1 and N2 of the shell elements of the shell seatbelt (only with /MAT/LAW119).
 If I_{P} = 24 and skew_ID ≠ 0, the first direction of the local coordinate system is used to define the transversal direction of the shell seatbelt (only with /MAT/LAW119), the 2^{nd} material direction m2. The skew (/SKEW/MOV or /SKEW/MOV2 only) must be defined with two nodes of the same seatbelt shell element. The third node can be chosen arbitrarily. The given orientation is propagated to all connected seatbelt elements.
The reference vector $V$ is projected on the shell element plane and becomes the vector ${V}^{\prime}$ . Then for each layer, the 1^{st} material direction (m1) is vector ${V}^{\prime}$ turned ${\varphi}_{\text{\hspace{0.17em}}i}$ degrees (turns positive direction around shell normal $n$ ).The hierarchy order to define the reference vector $V$ is: initial state card (/INISHE/ORTHO)
 shell property
In case of reference metrics, the orientation for directions of anisotropy must be defined with the reference geometry, not the initial one.
The 2^{nd} material direction m2 is derived from direction m1 rotated 90 degrees (orthotropic).
 P_thick_{fail} parameter is not compatible with failure defined within the material law itself, such as plastic failure strain in LAW36.
 Element deletion rules
used with /FAIL models:
 Underintegrated elements (Belytchko, QEPH, DKT18):
 If more than one failure model is applied to the shell material,
or
P_thick_{fail}=0
(blank), the value of
P_thick_{fail}
is calculated individually from each failure model settings. Example:
 Ifail_sh = 1
 One integration point failure sufficient to delete element, then P_thick_{fail}= 1.0 e6
 Ifail_sh = 2
 All integration points failure is necessary to delete the element, thenP_thick_{fail}= 1.0
 If only one failure model is applied to the material, the P_thick_{fail} value from the property is taken by default and overwrites local Ifail_sh settings from the failure model.
 If more than one failure model is applied to the shell material,
or
P_thick_{fail}=0
(blank), the value of
P_thick_{fail}
is calculated individually from each failure model settings.
 Fully integrated shells (Batoz, DKT_S3):
 The rule described for underintegrated shells applies to each Gauss point separately. P_thick_{fail} ratio is checked for all integration points in thickness for each inplane Gauss point. The element is deleted only when all Gauss points reach P_thick_{fail} ratio criteria.
 Underintegrated elements (Belytchko, QEPH, DKT18):