The Type C rolling friction model, proposed by Ai et al. (2011), goes beyond the standard EDEM rolling friction model by including a non-viscous term in the damping torque equation (Eq. 1).

(1) |

*
Where
Mr
** is the total damping torque vector,
Mrk
*

The non-viscous damping torque vector is a function of the relative particle rotation angle and the rolling stiffness as defined in Equations 2 and 3.

(2) | ||

(3) |

*Where *
*
k
*

It should be noted that the non-viscous torque magnitude is limited according to Equation 4.

(4) |

*Where *
*
F
*

The viscous damping torque vector is defined in Equation 5 and is function of the relative rotational velocity vector at the contact point and the rolling viscous damping ratio.

(5) |

*
*

It should be noted that the viscous damping torque is only applied if the non-viscous torque magnitude is below the limit defined in Equation 4.

In cases where significant non-viscous rolling resistance is expected at particle contacts such as when contact forces are high or the modeled material consists of predominantly angular particles, the use of Type C rolling friction may result in a more physically accurate behavior and greater stability of the EDEM model.

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