# Reference: Marker

Model ElementA Reference_Marker defines an orthonormal, right-handed coordinate system and reference frame in MotionSolve. A Reference_Marker must belong to a body. The body can be any type: rigid, flexible, or point.

## Description

The Newtonian reference frame (Ground) is considered to be a special case of a rigid body.

The image below illustrates how a Reference_Marker is defined. In the image above, N represents the Newtonian reference frame and coordinate system. It consists of a global origin O and three right-handed, mutually perpendicular directions denoted as OX, OY, and OZ.

M represents another coordinate system of interest. The origin of M is denoted by oM, and the axes of M are denoted as xM, yM, and zM. For this example, assume M is fixed with respect to N.

To define M, the measure numbers of the vector O-oM in the coordinate system N are needed. This is denoted as r in the image.

The rotation matrix that converts from the xM-yM-zM basis to the x-y-z basis is needed. This is denoted as NAM in the image.

A Reference_Marker is defined by specifying the following:
• The vector r.
• The matrix NAM.
• The body to which it belongs.
Common uses for Reference_Markers in MotionSolve include:
• Defining reference coordinate systems (LPRF) for rigid bodies, flexible bodies, and point masses.
• Specifying the connections in constraint elements.
• Specifying the connections in force elements.
• Defining reference coordinate systems for Reference_Curve, Reference_Surface, and Post_Graphic.
• Defining output channels for measurement of displacements, velocities, and accelerations.

The Reference_Marker with id = 0 has special significance. In all MotionSolve expressions, it is used to denote the global coordinate system.

The attribute node_id is optional. It is used only for flexible bodies.

## Format

<Reference_Marker
id                    = "integer"
[ label                 = "string" ]
body_id               = "integer"
[ body_type             = {"RIGIDBODY" | "FLEXBODY" | "POINTBODY"} ]
[ rm_id                 = "integer" ]
[ node_id               = "integer" ]
{
pos_x                 = "real"
pos_y                 = "real"
pos_z                 = "real"
[{
a00                   = "real"
a10                   = "real"
a20                   = "real"
a01                   = "real"
a11                   = "real"
a21                   = "real"
a02                   = "real"
a12                   = "real"
a22                   = "real"
|
psi                   = "real"
theta                 = "real"
phi                   = "real"
|
yaw                   = "real"
pitch                 = "real"
roll                  = "real"
|
e0                    = "real"
e1                    = "real"
e2                    = "real"
e3                    = "real"
}]
}
|
{
usrsub_param_string    = "USER(..,..)"
usrsub_fnc_name        = "valid fnc name"
usr_dll_name           = "valid dll name"
|
usrsub_param_string    = "USER(..,..)"
usrsub_fnc_name        = "valid fnc name"
interpreter            = "PYTHON | MATLAB"
script_name            = "valid script name"
}
/>    

## Attributes

id
Element identification number (integer>0). This number is unique to all Reference_Marker elements.
label
The name of the Reference_Marker element.
body_id
ID of the body to which marker belongs. The body may be Ground, a rigid body, a point mass, or a flexible body.
body_type

Specifies whether the body is of type RIGIDBODY, FLEXBODY or POINTBODY

This parameter is optional. The default type is RIGIDBODY.

rm_id

An optional attribute that specifies the Reference_Marker ID. If specified, the position and orientation of the marker is assumed to be with respect to the reference marker.

The default ID is 0 which refers to the global reference frame.

node_id
An optional attribute used only for flexible bodies.
pos_x, pos_y, pos_z
The x, y, z coordinates of the marker origin specified in terms of the global frame. pos_x defines the x-coordinate of the origin, pos_y defines the y-coordinate of the origin, and pos_z defines the z-coordinate of the origin.
a00 a01 a02
a10 a11 a12
a20 a21 a22
Elements of the transformation matrix defining the orientation of the Reference_Marker with respect to the global frame.
{a00 a10 a20} defines directions cosines of the x-axis.
{a01 a11 a21} defines directions cosines of the y-axis.
{a02 a12 a22} defines directions cosines of the z-axis. The nine elements define a 3x3, orthonormal matrix.
This means that the nine numbers must satisfy the following conditions:
• The magnitude of each column is 1.
• Each column is orthogonal (perpendicular) to the other two.
psi
In radians, the rotation around the original z-axis.
theta
In radians, the rotation around the new x-axis after Psi has been applied.
phi
In radians, the rotation around the new z-axis after Theta has been applied.
yaw
In radians, the rotation around the original z-axis of the marker.
pitch
In radians, the rotation about the new location of the y-axis of the marker after yaw has been applied.
roll
In radians, the rotation about the new location of the x-axis after pitch has been applied.
e0, e1, e2, e3
Euler parameters that describe the rotation.
usrsub_param_string
The list of parameters that are passed from the data file to the user defined subroutine.
usrsub_fnc_name
Specifies an alternative name for the user subroutine MARKER_READ.
usrsub_dll_name
Specifies the path and name of the DLL or shared library containing the user subroutine. MotionSolve uses this information to load the user subroutine in the DLL at run time.
script_name
Specifies the path and name of the user written script that contains the routine specified by usrsub_fnc_name.
interpreter
Specifies the interpreted language that the user script is written in. Valid choices are MATLAB or PYTHON.

## Example

The following example defines a Reference_Marker on a rigid body.

<Reference_Marker
id                  = "1012"
body_id             = "1000"
body_type           = "RIGIDBODY"
pos_x               = "1.414"
pos_y               = "3.14159"
pos_z               = "1.61804"
a00                 = "0."
a10                 = "1."
a20                 = "0."
a01                 = "0.041630503"
a11                 = "0."
a21                 = "0.99913307"
a02                 = "0.99913307"
a12                 = "0."
a22                 = "-0.04163050">
</Reference_Marker>

In the following example, only two of the columns of the DC matrix have been specified, namely those corresponding to the X and Z axes. The third column, corresponding to the Y axis, is computed using the vector cross product between the Z and X vectors.

<Reference_Marker
id                  = "90000072"
body_id             = "30303"
body_type           = "RigidBody"
pos_x               = "-130."
pos_y               = "0."
pos_z               = "-50."
a00                 = "0."
a10                 = "1."
a20                 = "0."
a02                 = "0.447214"
a12                 = "0."
a22                 = "0.89442699"
/>

In the following example, the DC matrix is omitted, implying that it is an identity matrix. Note that pos_x, pos_y and pos_z have also been omitted, which implies that they are all zero by default.

<Reference_Marker
id                  = "90000072"
body_id             = "30303"
body_type           = "RigidBody"
/>

In the following example, the Reference_Marker is specified using a Python script.

<Reference_Marker
id                  = "30102040"
label               = "Joint 3-Marker I"
body_id             = "30102"
body_type           = "RigidBody"
usrsub_param_string = "USER(1,-0.5,0.3,0.,1.57079633,1.57079633,-1.57079633)"
interpreter         = "Python"
/>

The script marker_read.py is defined below:

def MARKER_READ(id, par, npar):
eflg = 0
errflg = 0
r = 3*[0.0]
angle = 6*[0.0]
angle_type = int(par)
r = par
r = par
r = par
if angle_type==0: # DCMTX
angle = par
angle = par
angle = par
angle = par
angle = par
angle = par
elif (angle_type ==1) | (angle_type ==2): # Euler angles (313 or YPR)
angle = par
angle = par
angle = par
elif angle_type ==3: # Euler parameters
angle = par
angle = par
angle = par
angle = par
else:
errflg = 1;
return errflg
eflg = py_put_marker(id, r, angle_type, angle)

return  errflg