# CPYRA Element Checks and Default Bound Values

## CPYRA 1st-order (5-noded) Element Checks

- Aspect Ratio
- The aspect ratio of a CPYRA 1st-order element is defined as the maximum of the aspect ratios of its four triangular faces and the quadrilateral base face. Each triangular face is treated as a CTRIA3 element and the quadrilateral face as a CQUAD4 element.
- Face Skew Angle
- The face skew angle of a CPYRA 1st-order element is defined as the maximum of the skew angles of its four triangular faces and the quadrilateral base face. Each triangular face is treated as a CTRIA3 element and the quadrilateral face as a CQUAD4 element.
- Vertex Angle
- The same vertex angle check is performed for all of the faces, and each is treated as a triangular (CTRIA3) or quadrilateral (CQUAD4) element. The minimum and maximum values reported for the element.
- Face Warpage
- The face skew angle of a CPYRA 1st-order element is defined as the warpage of its quadrilateral base face, which is treated as a CQUAD4 element.

## CPYRA 2nd-order (13-noded) Element Checks

- Aspect Ratio
- This quality is calculated using only the corner nodes. Its definition is the same as that used for the CPYRA 1st-order element.
- Face Skew Angle
- This quality is calculated using only the corner nodes. Its definition is the same as that used for the CPYRA 1st-order element.
- Vertex Angle
- This quality is calculated using only the corner nodes. Its definition is the same as that used for the CPYRA 1st-order element.
- Face Warpage
- Hoe Normal Offset
- The hoe normal offset is the maximum of its edges normal offset values. See Hoe Normal Offset of 3-Node Edge
- Hoe Tangent Offset
- The hoe tangent offset is the maximum of its edges tangent offset values. See Hoe Tangent Offset of 3-Node Edge

## CPYRA Default Bounds

Information | Default values for warning message | Default values for error message | Default values for validity check | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Lower Limit | Upper Limit | Lower Limit | Upper Limit | Lower Limit | Upper Limit | |

Aspect Ratio | - | 100.0 | - | 1000.0 | - | 1.0E5 |

Skew Angle | - | 60.0 | - | 75.0 | - | 90.0 |

Face Warp Angle | - | 30.0 | - | 60.0 | - | 180.0 |

Hoe Normal Offset | - | 0.30 | - | 0.60 | - | 1.0E5 |

Hoe Tangent Offset | - | 0.20 | - | 0.25 | - | 0.5 |

The values used for warning and error checks may be adjusted by the ELEMQUAL Bulk Data Entry, but validity checks are hard-coded.