Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)

The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics method formulation is used to solve the equations of mechanics, when particles are free from a meshing grid.

It is specially adapted to simulate phenomena with a very substantial deformation, that is a range of applications where the Finite Element method, with ALE and Lagrangian formulation, loses' its efficiency and accuracy.

The SPH method built in the Radioss code is compatible with most functions. For instance, it is possible to cause two objects to interact, one discretized by finite elements and the other by particles.

You can put the SPH formulation in an ALE model, only if the boundary between SPH and ALE is Lagrangian. The SPH formulation is only available in 3D analysis.