/PROP/TYPE16 (SH_FABR)
Block Format Keyword This property is used to define the anisotropic layered shell property. This property is currently only compatible with elastic anisotropic fabric (/MAT/LAW58 (FABR_A)).
Format
(1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10) 

/PROP/TYPE16/prop_ID/unit_ID or /PROP/SH_FABR/prop_ID/unit_ID  
prop_title  
I_{shell}  I_{smstr}  I_{sh3n}  P_thick_{fail}  
h_{m}  h_{f}  h_{r}  d_{m}  d_{n}  
N  Thick  A_{shear}  I_{thick}  
V_{X}  V_{Y}  V_{Z}  skew_ID  I_{pos}  I_{P} 
(1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10) 

${\varphi}_{\text{\hspace{0.17em}}i}$  ${\alpha}_{1}$  t_{i}  Z_{i}  mat_ID_{i} 
Definitions
Field  Contents  SI Unit Example 

prop_ID  Property
identifier. (Integer, maximum 10 digits) 

unit_ID  Unit Identifier. (Integer, maximum 10 digits) 

prop_title  Property
title. (Character, maximum 100 characters) 

I_{shell}  Shell element formulation flag.
(Integer) 

I_{smstr}  Shell small strain
formulation flag.
(Integer) 

I_{sh3n}  3 node shell element
formulation flag.
(Integer) 

P_thick_{fail}  Element suppression
criterion. It is ratio of the sum of failed integration points
thickness over total shell thickness necessary to delete the
element. 7 This option used for /FAIL/FABRIC. $0.0\le P\_thic{k}_{fail}\le 1.0$ (Real) 

h_{m}  Shell membrane hourglass
coefficient. Only used when I_{shell} =1, 2, 3, 4 Default = 0.01 Default = 0.1 for I_{shell} =3 (Real) 

h_{f}  Shell outofplane
hourglass. Only used when I_{shell} =1, 2, 3, 4 Default = 0.01 (Real) 

h_{r}  Shell rotation hourglass
coefficient. Only used when I_{shell} =1, 2, 3, 4 Default = 0.01 Default = 0.1 for I_{shell} =3 (Real) 

d_{m}  Shell membrane
damping. Used only for material LAW58. Default =0.075 for I_{shell} =1, 2, 3, 4 Default= 0.15 for I_{shell} =24 Default =0.2 for I_{shell} =12 Default = 0.0 for all 3 node shells (Real) 

d_{n}  Shell numerical damping.
9 Only used for I_{shell} =12, 24 and I_{sh3n} = 30 Default =0.015 for I_{shell} =24 (QEPH) Default =0.001 for I_{shell} =12 (QBAT) Default =0.0001 for I_{sh3n} =30 (DKT18) (Real) 

N  Number of layers, with
$1\le N\le 100$
. 6
Default = 1 (Integer) 

Thick  Shell
thickness. (Real) 
$\left[\text{m}\right]$ 
A_{shear}  Shear factor. Default is Reissner value: 5/6 (Real) 

I_{thick}  Shell resultant stresses
calculation flag.
(Integer) 

V_{X}  X component for reference
vector. 3 Default = 1.0 (Real) 

V_{Y}  Y component for reference
vector. Default = 0.0 (Real) 

V_{Z}  Z component for reference
vector. Default = 0.0 (Real) 

skew_ID  Skew identifier for
reference vector. 3 Default = 0 (Integer) 

I_{pos}  Layer positioning flag for
reference vector. 4
Default = 0 (Integer) 

I_{P}  Reference direction in
shell plane. 3
(Integer) 

${\varphi}_{\text{\hspace{0.17em}}i}$  Angle
${\varphi}_{\text{\hspace{0.17em}}i}$
of 1st local axis for layer
i. 3 (Real) 
$\left[\mathrm{deg}\right]$ 
${\alpha}_{i}$  Angle between first and
second axis. 3 Default = 90.0 (Real) 
$\left[\mathrm{deg}\right]$ 
t_{i}  Thickness
t_{i} of layer
i. (Real) 
$\left[\text{m}\right]$ 
Z_{i}  Z position of layer i
(Z_{i} defines the
position of the middle of the layer). Default = 0.0 (Real) 
$\left[\text{m}\right]$ 
mat_ID_{i}  Material identifier for
layer i. Same material should be used for all
layers. (Integer) 
Example
#RADIOSS STARTER
#12345678910
# 1. LOCAL_UNIT_SYSTEM:
#12345678910
/UNIT/2
unit for PROP
# MUNIT LUNIT TUNIT
Mg mm s
#12345678910
# 2. GEOMETRICAL SETS:
#12345678910
/PROP/TYPE16/2/2
prop type 16
# Ishell Ismstr Ish3n Pthick_fail
0 0 0 0
# hm hf hr dm
0 0 0 0
# N Thick Ashear Ithick
3 1.6 0 0
# Vx Vy Vz skew_ID Ipos Ip
1 0 1 0 0 0
# Phi Alpha Ti Zi mat_IDi
45 90 .5 1
90 90 .6 2
45 90 .5 1
#12345678910
#enddata
#12345678910
Comments
 I_{shell} – 4node shell
formulation flag
The hourglass formulation is viscoelastic for Q4 shells (I_{shell}=1,2,3,4).
 h_{m}, h_{f}, and h_{r}  Hourglass coefficients
 h_{m}, h_{f}, and h_{r} are used only for Q4 shells (I_{shell}=1,2,3,4). They must have a value between 0 and 0.05.
 For I_{shell}=3, default values of h_{m} and h_{r} are 0.1 with larger values possible.
 Anisotropy direction
definition.The reference vector $V$ is defined as following according flag I_{P}:
 If I_{P}=0 and skew_ID = 0, the reference vector $V$ is defined with VX, VY and VZ.
 If I_{P}=0 and skew_ID ≠ 0, the reference vector $V$ is the first direction (local X) of the local coordinate system skew_ID.
 If I_{P} = 20, the reference vector $V$ is defined with the node N1 and N2 of the shell elements.
 If I_{P} = 22, the reference vector $V$ is the first direction (local X) of the local coordinate system skew_ID. Vector components VX, VY and VZ are ignored.
 If I_{P} = 23, the reference vector $V$ is defined with VX, VY and VZ. Local coordinate system skew_ID is ignored.
The reference vector $V$ is projected on the shell element plane and becomes the vector ${V}^{\prime}$ . Then for each layer, the 1^{st} material direction (m1) is vector ${V}^{\prime}$ turned ${\varphi}_{\text{\hspace{0.17em}}i}$ degrees (turns positive direction around shell normal $n$ ).The hierarchy order to define the reference vector $V$ is: initial state card (/INISHE/ORTHO)
 shell property
In case of reference metrics, the orientation for directions of anisotropy must be defined with the reference geometry, not the initial one.
The 2^{nd} material direction m2 is derived from direction m1 with the angle ${\alpha}_{\text{\hspace{0.17em}}i}$ . If ${\alpha}_{i}=90\xb0$ , the layer is orthotropic.
 I_{pos} – Layer position
I_{pos}= 0: layer positions are calculated automatically.
If(1) $$Thick\ne {\displaystyle \sum _{i}^{N}{t}_{i}}$$ A warning message is displayed
 Individual layer thickness will be adjusted to new layer thickness
${t}_{i}^{new}$
with:
(2) $$Thick={\displaystyle \sum _{i}^{N}{t}_{i}^{new}}$$Here "Thick" and ${t}_{i}$ are the shell thickness and layer thickness which specified in input.  I_{pos} = 1: all
layer positions in the element thickness are userdefined (with
${t}_{i}$
and
${Z}_{i}$
).
 “Thick” is not checked, as it does not need to be equal to the sum of layer thickness.
 Multiple layers are allowed to have the same space position.
For more details, refer to Layer thickness and position calculation. in FAQs.
 The material law number given in /PART will be used to define the density and Young’s modulus which then is used to calculate the time step and interface stiffness.
 Each i layer has only 1 integration point through its thickness.
 Option P_thick_{fail} is used by /FAIL/FABRIC criterion. This is the only criterion which is compatible with /PROP/TYPE16 and /MAT/LAW58.
 Thickness is constant for material /MAT/LAW58. Flag I_{thick} is not used for this material.
 Shell numerical
damping coefficient d_{n} is only
used for I_{shell}=12, 24 and I_{sh3n}=30:
 I_{shell} =24 (QEPH) d_{n} is used for hourglass stress calculation.
 I_{shell} =12 (QBAT) d_{n} is used for all stress terms.
 I_{sh3n} =30 (DKT18) d_{n} is used for all stress terms, except transverse shear.