# HyperMesh-Alt

HyperWorks CFD includes some alternate methods of calculating certain element types, which only apply to quads or rectangular faces of solids, and only include alternate checks for Aspect Ratio, Skew, Taper and Warpage.

- Aspect Ratio
- ratio1 = V1/H1
- Skew
- First, HyperWorks CFD constructs lines connecting the midpoints of each edge of the quad, dotted in the picture below. Next, HyperWorks CFD constructs a third line, green in the picture below, perpendicular to one of the initial lines, then finds the angle between this third line and the remaining initial line – with which is it most likely not perpendicular, unless the quad is a perfect rectangle.
- Taper
- First, the quad’s nodes are projected to plane defined by the
orthonormal vectors U-V found as follows:
- Z = X × Y
- V = Z × X
- U = X

- Warpage
- Only applies to quads or rectangular faces of solids. Warpage = 100 * h / max { Li }, where h is the minimum distance between the diagonals.