# RD-E: 2201 Ditching using ALE

Impact of a simple object on water simulated by ALE approach.

The ditching of a prism object into a pool of water is studied using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach. The simulation results are compared to the experimental data and analytical results. Furthermore, the study is performed using two different impact velocities. The impacting structure is a triangular prism section. The water is modeled with an ALE mesh while the structure is Lagrangian. The fluid-structure contact interactions are modeled using a /INTER/TYPE18 interface.

## Options and Keywords Used

## Input Files

Refer to Access the Model Files to download the required model file(s).

The model files used in this example are available in:

/radioss/example/22_Ditching

## Model Description

The problem consists of a simple object falling into water simulating the ditching of a helicopter.

Units: mm, ms, KN, GPa, kg

The impact of the triangular prism object on the water is performed and the results
are compared qualitatively to analytical results from ^{2} and also using the experimental data obtained from the
Politechnico di Milano. ^{1}

The impacting prism is modeled using shell elements with an average mesh size of 15 mm x 15 mm. To shorten the computation, it is made rigid with an accelerometer on the main node of the rigid body.

The water is modeled using solid elements consisting of a 15x15x15 mm mesh. The solid element property, /PROP/ TYPE14 (SOLID) is used with qa=qb =1e-20 which is recommended for classical subsonic fluid simulation.

The material law for air and water can use either the BIPHAS law (/MAT/LAW37) or /MAT/LAW51. In older versions of Radioss, /MAT/LAW37 was used. Now /MAT/LAW51 is the recommended best practice and only the input file for the model using /MAT/LAW51 is included as an example. A comparison between results using LAW37 and LAW51 is shown.

When using LAW51 with `I`_{form}=12 the air and water can be defined using a
/MAT/LAW6 sub-material.

### Boundary Setup

An initial velocity and gravity are applied to the prism in the Z direction.

- Z translation component fixed for lower and upper faces
- Y translation component fixed for lateral faces normal to Y
- X translation component fixed for lateral faces normal to X

`I`

_{form}=6 it is possible to set a non-reflecting boundary without defining any parameters. The material parameters are calculated based on its neighbor element. In this case, one layer of elements needs to be defined as a non-reflecting boundary. The mesh of two corner boundary elements is recommended to be defined (Figure 6).

### Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI)

An /INTER/TYPE18 interface is defined to manage the contact between the Lagrangian mesh (Prism) and the ALE fluid. The impacting prism is the Lagrangian surface and the ALE fluid is the ALE brick elements group.

- $\rho $
- The (highest) fluid density
- $$\nu $$
- Estimated relative velocity of the phenomenon
- $${S}_{el}$$
- Average surface area of the Lagrangian elements
- $$Gap$$
- Contact gap

The recommended Gap value is 1.5 times the average element length of the ALE mesh.

```
************************************************************************
*
* PARAMETERS
* ----------
*
* EVALUATION ...
*
* GLOBAL PARAMETERS
* Velocity
* REFERENCE . . .= V
* VALUE . . . . .= -11.00000000000
* fluild mesh size
* REFERENCE . . .= mesh_f
* VALUE . . . . .= 15.00000000000
* lagrangian mesh size
* REFERENCE . . .= mesh_l
* VALUE . . . . .= 15.00000000000
* gap =1.5*mesh_f
* REFERENCE . . .= gap
* EXPRESSION . .= 1.5*mesh_f
* VALUE . . . . .= 22.50000000000
* inter18 stval =rho*V*V*S/Gap
* REFERENCE . . .= stval
* EXPRESSION . .= 1.0E-6*V*V*(mesh_l*mesh_l)/gap
* VALUE . . . . .= 1.2100000000000E-03
*
*
************************************************************************
```

## Results

Results using material LAW37 and LAW51 at 11 m/s are compared.

The ALE method results in a maximum acceleration of 77.3 g for LAW51 and 75.8 g for LAW37. However, the Von Karman theoretical solution delivers 83.5 g. The maximum value from the test is between 82.8 g and 77.5 g.

In general, the ALE results match the analytical and experiment curve, especially at the duration for acceleration beyond 40 g. Using material LAW51 is recommended because it results in a more discrete boundary at the fluid-structure interface.