I/O Options and Bulk Data Entry and Subcase Information Entry The INCLUDE command can be used in the I/O Options, Bulk Data or Subcase Information sections to indicate that the contents of another file are to be inserted into the input file at the exact location of the include command.


INCLUDE = option


Argument Options Description
option <filename>

No default

<filename> The following can be defined as arguments to the INCLUDE command.
  • The file name of the file, or,
  • The relative path along with the file name, or,
  • The absolute path along with the file name.


  • Windows:
    INCLUDE plate_hole.fem
    INCLUDE ..\plate_hole.fem
    INCLUDE D:\repository\plate_hole.fem
    INCLUDE D:\repository/plate_hole.fem
  • Linux
    INCLUDE plate_hole.fem
    INCLUDE ../plate_hole.fem
    INCLUDE /scratch/repository/plate_hole.fem


  1. INCLUDE commands may be placed at any location in the input file but, must include information appropriate to that location.
  2. Names specified on the INCLUDE card can be arbitrary file names with optional paths appropriate to the operating system (Windows or Linux). They may be enclosed in quotes (double or single quotes can be used), and either forward slash (/) or back slash (\) characters can be used to separate parts of the path name.
  3. There is no specific requirement or meaning of filename extension(s) used on the INCLUDE command. When the file has ‘.gz’ as the last three characters, then it is assumed to be compressed using gzip compression. Any included file can be compressed irrespective of whether the main file is compressed or not. Notice that the search rules allows to compress any included file and not change the relevant INCLUDE card. This compression is implemented only for the main input file, the update file listed by ASSIGN,UPDATE, and any files included (using INCLUDE) recursively from these two files.
  4. If -asp or -localfilesonly option is present, and the INCLUDE entry contains a path (relative or absolute) along with the file name, then the path with file name is replaced with the file name only.
  5. The following rules are used to locate a file referenced on the INCLUDE entry. The first file which is found is used, and no further searches are performed for the file (there is no warning if there may be more than a single match for the same filename):
    • When the file name is listed on -filemap, then the mapped file name is checked and the search is terminated, even if this file is not found.
    • When the argument contains ‘.gz’ as the last three characters, it is assumed to be compressed using gzip compression. When the filename does not contain ‘.gz’, and any of the tests below fail to find a file, then ‘.gz’ is appended to the name and the file is checked again. This allows you to compress any included file, and not have to change the relevant INCLUDE card.
    • When the argument contains the absolute path of the file (if it starts with “/” or a drive letter, such as “D:” on Windows, for example), the file at the given location is used. If not found, then it is searched in the locations specified by INCPATH I/O Option or -incpath run option.
    • When argument only contains the file name (without the path or with ./), the file in the same directory as the file containing the INCLUDE command is used.
    • When the argument contains a relative path (../filename or sub/filename, for example), it is located in the directory relative to the file containing the INCLUDE command.
    • When the argument does not contains a path or if it contains a relative path, then the search is repeated in (or relative to) the run directory (the directory in which the solver was executed), and again in the main directory (the directory where the main input file is located), assuming that these locations differ from the location of the current file.
  6. The INCLUDE command supports path names of up to 600 characters in length. This data can be on a single line or span multiple continuation lines. Refer to I/O Options and Subcase Information Entries Guidelines for an example showing how to enter long file names on multiple lines.
  7. The DOS_DRIVE_$ environment variable or corresponding configuration file setting can be used to assign drive letters to Unix paths. This allows Windows-style file paths to be used for runs on Unix machines. Refer to Environment Variables, I/O Options Section, or Configuration File for more information.
  8. Represented through the main model in HyperMesh.