# Response Spectrum Analysis

Response Spectrum Analysis (RSA) is a technique used to estimate the maximum response of a structure for a transient event. Maximum displacement, stresses, and/or forces may be determined in this manner.

The technique combines response spectra for a specified dynamic loading with results of a normal modes analysis. The time-history of the responses are not available.

Response spectra describes the maximum response versus natural frequency of a 1-DOF system for a specified dynamic loading. They are employed to calculate the maximum modal response for each structural mode. These modal maxima may then be combined using various methods, such as the Absolute Sum (ABS) method or the Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method, to obtain an estimate of the peak structural response.

RSA is a simple and computationally inexpensive method to provide an approximation of peak response, compared to conventional transient analysis. The major computational effort is to obtain a sufficient number of normal modes in order to represent the entire frequency range of input excitation and resulting response. Response spectra are usually provided by design specifications; given these, peak responses under various dynamic excitations can be quickly calculated. Therefore, it is widely used as a design tool in areas such as seismic analysis of buildings.

## Governing Equations

### Normal Modes Analysis

The equilibrium equation for a structure performing free vibration appears as the eigenvalue problem:(1) $\left(K-\lambda M\right)A=0$
Where,
$K$
Stiffness matrix of the structure
$M$
Mass matrix. Damping is neglected.

The solution of the eigenvalue problem yields $n$ eigenvalues ${\lambda }_{i}$, where $n$ is the number of degrees of freedom. The vector $A$ is the eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue.

The eigenvalue problem is solved using the Lanczos or the AMSES method. Not all eigenvalues are required and only a small number of the lowest eigenvalues are normally calculated. The results of eigenvalue analysis are the fundamentals of response spectrum analysis.

Response spectrum analysis can be performed together with normal modes analysis in a single run, or eigenvalue analysis with Lanczos solver can be performed first to save eigenvalues and eigenvectors by using EIGVSAVE, which can be retrieved later by using EIGVRETRIEVE for response spectrum analysis.

### Modal Combination

It is assumed each individual mode behaves like a single degree-of-freedom system. The transient response at a degree of freedom is:(2) ${u}_{k}=\sum _{i}{A}_{ik}{\psi }_{i}\chi$
Where,
$A$
Eigenvector
$\psi$
Modal participation factor
$\chi$
Response spectrum
For loading due to base acceleration, the modal participation factor can be expressed as:(3) ${\psi }_{i}={A}_{i}^{T}MT$
Where,
$A$
Eigenvector
$M$
Mass matrix
$T$
Rigid body motion due to excitation
In ABS modal combination, the peak response is estimated by:(4) ${u}_{k}=\sum _{i}|{A}_{ik}||{\psi }_{i}\chi |$
In CQC modal combination, the peak response is estimated by:(5) ${u}_{k}=\sqrt{\sum _{m}\sum _{n}{v}_{m}{\rho }_{mn}{v}_{n}}$
Where,
${v}_{m}$
Modal response associated with mode $m$
${\rho }_{mn}$
Cross-modal coefficient
The cross modal coefficient ${\rho }_{mn}$ between modes $m$ and $n$ is calculated as:(6) ${\rho }_{mn}=\frac{8\sqrt{{\xi }_{m}{\xi }_{n}}\left({\xi }_{m}+{r}_{nm}{\xi }_{n}\right){r}_{nm}^{1.5}}{{\left(1-{r}_{nm}^{2}\right)}^{2}+4{\xi }_{m}{\xi }_{n}{r}_{nm}\left(1+{r}_{nm}^{2}\right)+4\left({\xi }_{m}^{2}+{\xi }_{n}^{2}\right){r}_{nm}^{2}}$
Where,
${r}_{nm}=\frac{{\lambda }_{n}}{{\lambda }_{m}}$
Ratio of eigenvalues of the modes
Modal damping values of the two modes.
In SRSS modal combination, the peak response is estimated by:(7) ${u}_{k}=\sqrt{\sum _{i}{\left({A}_{ik}{\psi }_{i}\chi \right)}^{2}}$

The SRSS method is less conservative than ABS method. It is more accurate when the modes are well separated.

The NRL method combines ABS and SRSS methods. It adds the maximum modal response by ABS method and the rest of the modes by SRSS method. The peak response is estimated by:(8) ${u}_{k}=|{A}_{ik}||{\psi }_{i}\chi |+\sqrt{\sum _{j\ne i}{\left({A}_{jk}{\psi }_{j}\chi \right)}^{2}}$

### Directional Combination

In order to estimate peak response due to dynamic excitations in different directions, the peak response in each direction must be combined to obtain total peak response. Methods such as ALG (algebraic) and SRSS (square root of sum of squares) can be used.

## Input Specification

### Subcase Definition

An RSA subcase may be explicitly identified by setting ANALYSIS=RSPEC, but it is also implicitly chosen for any subcase containing the RSPEC data selector (when the ANALYSIS entry is not present).

The following data selectors are recognized for an RSA subcase definition.
METHOD
References an eigenvalue extraction Bulk Data Entry definition (EIGRL). Only METHOD(STRUCTURE) is supported. This reference is required.
RSPEC
References an RSPEC Bulk Data Entry where the combination rules, excitation DOF, and the input spectra are identified. This reference is required.
SDAMPING
References damping table Bulk Data Entries (TABDMP1 or TABDMP2) to specify modal damping. This reference is required.
SPC
References single point constraint Bulk Data Entries (SPCADD, SPC and SPC1). For RSA analysis, these entries define the base degrees of freedom where excitation is applied.
MPC
References multi-point constraint Bulk Data Entries (MPCADD or MPC).

### Bulk Data

Bulk Data Entries which have particular significance for RSA include:
RSPEC
Specifies combination rules, excitation DOF, and references the input spectra.
DTI,SPECSEL
Defines response spectra.
EIGRL
Defines parameters for eigenvalue extraction.
PARAM, LFREQ and PARAM, HFREQ
Defines the range of modes used in modal combinations.
TABDMP1
Specifies modal damping as a function of frequency.
TABDMP2
Specifies modal damping as a function of a range of mode indices.
Specifies base where excitation is applied and other constraints.

### Example: Input

SUBCASE 100
RSPEC = 2
SPC = 5
SDAMPING = 12
METHOD = 24
$BEGIN BULK$
PARAM, LFREQ, 0.1
PARAM, HFREQ, 1000.
EIGRL, 24, 0.0, 1000.
RSPEC, 2, ABS, CQC, 0.1
, 99, 2.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0
DTI, SPECSEL, 99, , A, 2, 0., 3, 0.02,
, 4, 0.04, ENDREC
TABDMP1, 12, …
TABLED1, 2
+,…
TABLED1, 3
+,…
TABLED1, 4
+,…
ENDDATA
\$

### Output

Results of interest from RSA include maximum displacement, stress, strain and force. These are requested via the I/O Options Entry DISPLACEMENT, STRESS / ELSTRESS, STRAIN and FORCE / ELFORCE, respectively. More details on the supported output formats for the results can be found in Results Output by OptiStruct.

For shell elements, corner stresses are available in the H3D, PCH and OP2 file formats, while corner strains are available in the OP2 file format. For more information on the location of element outputs, refer to STRESS and STRAIN in the Reference Guide.

For bar and beam elements defined using PBARL and PBEAML respectively in RSA, von Mises Stress output is available in the .h3d file format.